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    In a typical food chain, about 10% of the energy is passed on to the next trophic level. This means that only a small fraction of the energy from one level is available to support the organisms at the next level. For example, if plants capture 100 units of energy from the sun, herbivores that eat the plants will only receive about 10 units of energy, and carnivores that eat the herbivores will receive even less.

    This phenomenon is known as ecological efficiency, and it helps to explain why food chains are relatively short and why there are fewer top predators in an ecosystem compared to primary producers. The loss of energy as it moves through trophic levels also highlights the importance of maintaining a balanced and diverse ecosystem to ensure sufficient energy flow for all organisms within the food web.

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